Proyecto Genoma Humano
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|Proyecto Genoma Humano|
The logo of the Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project is an international effort to determine the sequence of nucleotides in human DNA and identify all of the genes encoded therein.
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The Human Genome Project was started in 1990 as a joint effort between the United States (the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Health) and researchers in China, France, Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom, at an estimated cost of (US) $3 billion. A "rough draft" of the human genome was made public in the year 2000, followed by a announcement of a nearly complete sequencing of all human genes in 2003. In May 2006, researchers announced that they had fully sequenced all genes in Chromosome 1 (the largest human chromosome).
Current technology limits the ability to decode many parts of the human genome, including the centromeres (repetative centers of the chromosomes), the telomeres (tips of the chromosomes, believed to be controls of cell aging), and some dense areas that appear to produce immunity defenses to disease. It is estimated that 92% of the human genome has been sequenced to date.
One interesting discovery was that as much as 98% of the DNA sequence found in the human chromosomes are not involved in protein encoding — these sequences are often referred to as "junk DNA". While their true functions are unknown, the "junk DNA" may still serve important roles: as mounting points for the protein-producing RNA, as radiation shielding for the more critical genes, or as sites of new evolving genes.
Mohinder Suresh, in a lecture at Chennai University, explains to his students that the Human Genome Project is yielding miniscule variations in human DNA that may produce evolutionary qualities, such as levitation, teleportation or other abilities.
In Mohinder's dream, Mohinder sees a younger version of himself talking to a young Chandra. The young Mohinder tells the young Chandra that he thinks his book on evolution is extraordinary and that they can locate evolved humans with the Human Genome Project.
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